Submit only text files or files in .doc or .docx format (such as from Microsoft Word).
Please use the Manuscript Style Template when preparing your manuscript.
Your article should include four major sections: the Title, Abstract, Main Body, and References. Further requirements of the title, abstract and references are given below.
Title: The title given should be concise and informative, without abbreviations. Please indicate the author’s name and author’s institution.
Abstract: The abstract should be concise and factual (maximum length of 150 words). The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the study, the principal results and major conclusions. References should be avoided. Where essential, they should be cited in full.
The article submitted should consist of not more than 30% of the textual material published elsewhere by the same author or authors, and this must be acknowledged and cited. Please provide more than a few scholarly references. The remaining 70% of the article must be unique and original to your current submission.
Tables are useful for presenting a large quantity of information clearly and concisely. They typically display numerical data in columns and rows for easy classification and comparison. Tables do not duplicate text, but rather present new information. They should be interpretable without the text. Use them only when necessary.
Unpublished results and personal communication should not be in the reference list but may be mentioned in the text. Delete any references not cited within the main text of the article.
You are required to have obtained permission for the use of any copyrighted materials in your work. Examples of copyright materials includes diagrams, tables and figures. Citations, quotations, diagrams, tables, and maps can be added to the article but need to be accurate.
All graphs and drawings should be original or have a formal release from the copyright owners. Graphics can be in colour for the electronic edition but must be legible in black or grey scale for the print edition. They must be of high resolution (300 dpi), clear and easy to view as we are unable to improve the quality of images.
References must be listed in alphabetical order by author and further sorted chronologically if necessary. Avoid excessive self-citations. Avoid providing more than three references of which you are first author. You are also to provide full bibliographic information for each source at the end of the manuscript.
Please hyperlink the citations in the text to your references. Please also provide the external website address of your reference (if any). This will allow our reviewers to counter-check the external sources.
Your article should be thoroughly checked and proofread before submission, both by the author and a critical editorial friend. Please follow British spelling conventions. Spelling should be kept internally consistent. Use spellcheck software for checking the accuracy of spelling before submitting your paper.